Wolfgang Ketterle

Nobel Lecture

When Atoms Behave as Waves: Bose-Einstein Condensation and the Atom Laser

Wolfgang Ketterle held his Nobel Lecture December 8, 2001, at Aula Magna, Stockholm University. He was presented by Professor Mats Jonson, Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Physics.

Summary: Starting by comparing Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) with laser light, the experimental challenges to make and observe BEC in gases are discussed. BEC was eventually achieved by combining laser cooling and evaporated cooling methods. The first observation of a phase transition to BEC in sodium in 1995 was followed by studies of BECs that are cold condensates of atoms that interact and are coherent. The formation of vortices and matter waves are discussed, as is the notion that BECs should be regarded both as a tool for knowledge and a tool for applications.

When Atoms Behave as Waves: Bose-Einstein Condensation and the Atom Laser

Wolfgang Ketterle held his Nobel Lecture December 8, 2001, at Aula Magna, Stockholm University. He was presented by Professor Mats Jonson, Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Physics.

Read the Nobel Lecture
Pdf 1.01 MB

Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 2001

From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 2001, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 2002

To read the text you need Acrobat Reader.

To cite this section
MLA style: Wolfgang Ketterle – Nobel Lecture. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Media AB 2018. Tue. 25 Sep 2018. <https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/2001/ketterle/lecture/>

Back to top Back To Top Takes users back to the top of the page

Explore prizes and laureates

Look for popular awards and laureates in different fields, and discover the history of the Nobel Prize.