1915 Albert Einstein publishes his general theory of relativity for gravity.
1918 Max Planck awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the law of blackbody radiation using energy quanta.
1922 Alexander Friedmann discovers an expanding Universe in Einstein’s equations.
1927 Georges Lemaître develops the idea of the expanding Universe.
1929 Edwin Hubble discovers the expansion of the Universe.
1940s Ralph Alpher, George Gamow and Robert Herman present the first theory for a Universe evolving from a hot initial state.
1949 The term “Big Bang” is coined sarcastically by Fred Hoyle, who believed the Universe was static.
1978 Arno Penzias och Robert Wilson awarded Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the cosmic microwave background.
1989 18 November COBE launched.
This year 12 new laureates have been awarded for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind. Their work and discoveries range from cancer therapy and laser physics to developing proteins that can solve humankind’s chemical problems. The work of the 2018 Nobel Laureates also included combating war crimes, as well as integrating innovation and climate with economic growth. Find out more.