Nobel Laureates by age

Lawrence Bragg, Leonid Hurwicz

This list shows the Laureates by age at the year of the award.

Age 17 (1)

The Nobel Peace Prize 2014
Malala Yousafzai
“for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education”

Age 25 (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915
Lawrence Bragg
“for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays”

Age 31 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932
Werner Heisenberg
“for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933
Paul A.M. Dirac
“for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936
Carl D. Anderson
“for his discovery of the positron”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957
Tsung-Dao Lee
“for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

Age 32 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961
Rudolf Mössbauer
“for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923
Frederick G. Banting
“for the discovery of insulin”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1976
Mairead Corrigan

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011
Tawakkol Karman
“for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”

Age 33 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
Brian D. Josephson
“for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Joshua Lederberg
“for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1976
Betty Williams

The Nobel Peace Prize 1992
Rigoberta Menchú Tum
“in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples”

Age 34 (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960
Donald A. Glaser
“for the invention of the bubble chamber”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
James Watson
“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

Age 35 (6)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909
Guglielmo Marconi
“in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914
Max von Laue
“for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927
Arthur H. Compton
“for his discovery of the effect named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957
Chen Ning Yang
“for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935
Frédéric Joliot
“in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1964
Martin Luther King Jr.

Age 36 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903
Marie Curie
“in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010
Konstantin Novoselov
“for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939
Adolf Butenandt
“for his work on sex hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Archibald V. Hill
“for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

Age 37 (7)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902
Pieter Zeeman
“in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922
Niels Bohr
“for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929
Louis de Broglie
“for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938
Enrico Fermi
“for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987
J. Georg Bednorz
“for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908
Ernest Rutherford
“for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
David Baltimore
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

Age 38 (10)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924
Manne Siegbahn
“for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925
Gustav Hertz
“for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939
Ernest Lawrence
“for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935
Irène Joliot-Curie
“in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938
Richard Kuhn
“for his work on carotenoids and vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952
Richard L.M. Synge
“for their invention of partition chromatography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914

Robert Bárány

“for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Otto Meyerhof
“for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
Frederick C. Robbins
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
Georges J.F. Köhler
“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

Age 39 (7)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959
Owen Chamberlain
“for their discovery of the antiproton”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
Gerd Binnig
“for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
Glenn T. Seaborg
“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912
Alexis Carrel
“in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Ernst B. Chain
“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
Thomas H. Weller
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011
Leymah Gbowee
“for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”

Age 40 (9)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917
Charles Glover Barkla
“for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952
E. M. Purcell
“for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969
Murray Gell-Mann
“for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976
Samuel C.C. Ting
“for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Eric Cornell
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958
Frederick Sanger
“for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967
Manfred Eigen
“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Hartmut Michel
“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1983
Lech Walesa

Age 41 (6)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972
Robert Schrieffer
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912
Victor Grignard
“for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934
Harold C. Urey
“for his discovery of heavy hydrogen”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Arthur Kornberg
“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
Marshall W. Nirenberg
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Howard M. Temin
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

Age 42 (15)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921
Albert Einstein
“for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
“for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949
Hideki Yukawa
“for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955
Willis E. Lamb
“for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964
Nicolay G. Basov
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972
Leon N. Cooper
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978
Robert Woodrow Wilson
“for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985
Klaus von Klitzing
“for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Adam G. Riess
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926
The Svedberg
“for his work on disperse systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946
Wendell M. Stanley
“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952
Archer J.P. Martin
“for their invention of partition chromatography”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989
Thomas R. Cech
“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
William P. Murphy
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1907
Rudyard Kipling
“in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author”

Age 43 (9)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905
Philipp Lenard
“for his work on cathode rays”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912
Gustaf Dalén
“for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925
James Franck
“for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993
Russell A. Hulse
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915
Richard Willstätter
“for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
Koichi Tanaka
“for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Niels Ryberg Finsen
“in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932
Edgar Adrian
“for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972
Gerald M. Edelman
“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

Age 44 (15)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903
Pierre Curie
“in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935
James Chadwick
“for the discovery of the neutron”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955
Polykarp Kusch
“for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
Ivar Giaever
“for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Wolfgang Ketterle
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Brian P. Schmidt
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903
Svante Arrhenius
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911
Marie Curie
“in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921
Frederick Soddy
“for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
Edwin M. McMillan
“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981
Roald Hoffmann
“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937
Albert Szent-Györgyi
“for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939
Gerhard Domagk
“for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985
Michael S. Brown
“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1957
Albert Camus
“for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times”

Age 45 (13)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919
Johannes Stark
“for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937
George Paget Thomson
“for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945
Wolfgang Pauli
“for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976
Burton Richter
“for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978
Arno Penzias
“for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922
Francis W. Aston
“for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962
John C. Kendrew
“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Johann Deisenhofer
“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902
Ronald Ross
“for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960
Peter Medawar
“for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
François Jacob
“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985
Joseph L. Goldstein
“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1930
Sinclair Lewis
“for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters”

Age 46 (22)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933
Erwin Schrödinger
“for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944
Isidor Isaac Rabi
“for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
William B. Shockley
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961
Robert Hofstadter
“for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Steven Weinberg
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982
Kenneth G. Wilson
“for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914
Theodore W. Richards
“in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948
Arne Tiselius
“for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920
August Krogh
“for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938
Corneille Heymans
“for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
Francis Crick
“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
Maurice Wilkins
“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
Andrew Huxley
“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
Robert W. Holley
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
H. Gobind Khorana
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006
Craig C. Mello
“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1928
Sigrid Undset
“principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1938
Pearl Buck
“for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1935
Carl von Ossietzky

The Nobel Peace Prize 1950
Ralph Bunche

The Nobel Peace Prize 1987
Oscar Arias Sánchez
“for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1991
Aung San Suu Kyi
“for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights”

Age 47 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911
Wilhelm Wien
“for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950
Cecil Powell
“for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952
Felix Bloch
“for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
Julian Schwinger
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
Richard P. Feynman
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Sheldon Glashow
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907
Eduard Buchner
“for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913
Alfred Werner
“in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931
Friedrich Bergius
“in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967
George Porter
“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003
Roderick MacKinnon
“for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901
Emil von Behring
“for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923
John Macleod
“for the discovery of insulin”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Sir Howard Florey
“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Hamilton O. Smith
“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991
Erwin Neher
“for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006
Andrew Z. Fire
“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1987
Joseph Brodsky
“for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1911
Alfred Fried

The Nobel Peace Prize 1996
José Ramos-Horta
“for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1997
Jody Williams
“for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines”

Age 48 (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951
Ernest T.S. Walton
“for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
John Bardeen
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964
Aleksandr M. Prokhorov
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
Leo Esaki
“for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Robert B. Laughlin
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937
Paul Karrer
“for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950
Kurt Alder
“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962
Max F. Perutz
“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965
Robert B. Woodward
“for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980
Walter Gilbert
“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Jean-Marie Lehn
“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931
Otto Warburg
“for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943
Henrik Dam
“for his discovery of vitamin K”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
Bengt I. Samuelsson
“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987
Susumu Tonegawa
“for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
Eric F. Wieschaus
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Carol W. Greider
“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1936
Eugene O’Neill
“for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1906
Theodore Roosevelt

The Nobel Peace Prize 1926
Gustav Stresemann

The Nobel Peace Prize 1958
Georges Pire

The Nobel Peace Prize 1996
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
“for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2009
Barack H. Obama
“for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples”

Age 49 (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902
Hendrik A. Lorentz
“in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928
Owen Willans Richardson
“for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964
Charles H. Townes
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
Ben R. Mottelson
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980
James Cronin
“for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
Steven Chu
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
William D. Phillips
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Horst L. Störmer
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901
Jacobus H. van ‘t Hoff
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930
Hans Fischer
“for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993
Kary B. Mullis
“for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911
Allvar Gullstrand
“for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919
Jules Bordet
“for his discoveries relating to immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
George R. Minot
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948
Paul Müller
“for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Edward Tatum
“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
Alan Hodgkin
“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Werner Arber
“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991
Bert Sakmann
“for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993
Phillip A. Sharp
“for their discoveries of split genes”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911
Maurice Maeterlinck
“in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers’ own feelings and stimulate their imaginations”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1915
Romain Rolland
“as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1980
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

Age 50 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906
J.J. Thomson
“in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Il´ja M. Frank
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974
Antony Hewish
“for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984
Carlo Rubbia
“for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Carl Wieman
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902
Emil Fischer
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918
Fritz Haber
“for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927
Heinrich Wieland
“for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945
Artturi Virtanen
“for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957
Lord Todd
“for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961
Melvin Calvin
“for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
Yuan T. Lee
“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989
Sidney Altman
“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943
Edward A. Doisy
“for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957
Daniel Bovet
“for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Daniel Nathans
“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Harold E. Varmus
“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993
Richard J. Roberts
“for their discoveries of split genes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Shinya Yamanaka
“for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1912
Gerhart Hauptmann
“primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1973
Henry Kissinger

Age 51 (14)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903
Henri Becquerel
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948
Patrick M.S. Blackett
“for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
Douglas D. Osheroff
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932
Irving Langmuir
“for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969
Derek Barton
“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Robert Huber
“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
Carl Cori
“for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
Gerty Cori
“for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976
Baruch S. Blumberg
“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Andrew V. Schally
“for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014
May-Britt Moser
“for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909
Selma Lagerlöf
“in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1939
Frans Eemil Sillanpää
“for his deep understanding of his country’s peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1972
Kenneth J. Arrow
“for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory”

Age 52 (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993
Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010
Andre Geim
“for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Saul Perlmutter
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904
Sir William Ramsay
“in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928
Adolf Windaus
“for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936
Peter Debye
“for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939
Leopold Ruzicka
“for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960
Willard F. Libby
“for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973
Geoffrey Wilkinson
“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
Mario J. Molina
“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
Stefan W. Hell
“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951
Max Theiler
“for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955
Hugo Theorell
“for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
Werner Forssmann
“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964
Konrad Bloch
“for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
“for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
Sir Paul Nurse
“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014
Edvard I. Moser
“for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913
Rabindranath Tagore
“because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949
William Faulkner
“for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1970
Alexandr Solzhenitsyn
“for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1986
Wole Soyinka
“who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1921
Christian Lange

Age 53 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915
William Bragg
“for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936
Victor F. Hess
“for his discovery of cosmic radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
Aage N. Bohr
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Abdus Salam
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
Heinrich Rohrer
“for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999
Gerardus ‘t Hooft
“for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004
Frank Wilczek
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954
Linus Pauling
“for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996
Richard E. Smalley
“for their discovery of fullerenes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999
Ahmed Zewail
“for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Tadeus Reichstein
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Hans Krebs
“for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964
Feodor Lynen
“for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976
D. Carleton Gajdusek
“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Roger Guillemin
“for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
J. Michael Bishop
“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994
Alfred G. Gilman
“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1955
Halldór Laxness
“for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1984
Desmond Tutu

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1997
Robert C. Merton
“for a new method to determine the value of derivatives”

Age 54 (29)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951
John Cockcroft
“for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
Walter H. Brattain
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Pavel A. Cherenkov
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959
Emilio Segrè
“for their discovery of the antiproton”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962
Lev Landau
“for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
Philip W. Anderson
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Hiroshi Amano
“for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906
Henri Moissan
“in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923
Fritz Pregl
“for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937
Norman Haworth
“for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949
William F. Giauque
“for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955
Vincent du Vigneaud
“for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
“for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980
Paul Berg
“for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
Dudley R. Herschbach
“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003
Peter Agre
“for the discovery of water channels”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
Eric Betzig
“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
“in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Paul Ehrlich
“in recognition of their work on immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Philip S. Hench
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Fritz Lipmann
“for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Severo Ochoa
“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005
Barry J. Marshall
“for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Bruce A. Beutler
“for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1929
Thomas Mann
“principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2006
Orhan Pamuk
“who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1975
Andrei Sakharov

The Nobel Peace Prize 1989
The 14th Dalai Lama

The Nobel Peace Prize 1998
David Trimble
“for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland”

Age 55 (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907
Albert A. Michelson
“for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923
Robert A. Millikan
“for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943
Otto Stern
“for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947
Edward V. Appleton
“for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004
H. David Politzer
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946
John H. Northrop
“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973
Ernst Otto Fischer
“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904
Ivan Pavlov
“in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
George Beadle
“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
Jacques Monod
“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972
Rodney R. Porter
“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979
Allan M. Cormack
“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
David H. Hubel
“for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
John R. Vane
“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997
Stanley B. Prusiner
“for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
H. Robert Horvitz
“for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1926
Grazia Deledda
“for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1954
Ernest Hemingway
“for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1972
Heinrich Böll
“for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1982
Gabriel García Márquez
“for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent’s life and conflicts”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2010
Liu Xiaobo
“for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1970
Paul A. Samuelson
“for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2008
Paul Krugman
“for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity”

Age 56 (32)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926
Jean Baptiste Perrin
“for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937
Clinton Davisson
“for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
J. Hans D. Jensen
“for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974
Martin Ryle
“for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Melvin Schwartz
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015
Takaaki Kajita
“for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909
Wilhelm Ostwald
“in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920
Walther Nernst
“in recognition of his work in thermochemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
“for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972
Christian Anfinsen
“for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982
Aaron Klug
“for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
John E. Walker
“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Roger Y. Tsien
“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
George H. Whipple
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Herbert S. Gasser
“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946
Hermann J. Muller
“for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
“for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Rosalyn Yalow
“for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996
Peter C. Doherty
“for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922
Jacinto Benavente
“for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1937
Roger Martin du Gard
“for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1945
Gabriela Mistral
“for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1995
Seamus Heaney
“for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009
Herta Müller
“who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1961
Dag Hammarskjöld

The Nobel Peace Prize 1970
Norman Borlaug

The Nobel Peace Prize 2003
Shirin Ebadi
“for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990
William F. Sharpe
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1997
Myron Scholes
“for a new method to determine the value of derivatives”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2000
James J. Heckman
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007
Roger B. Myerson
“for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”

Age 57 (25)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
Maria Goeppert Mayer
“for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968
Luis Alvarez
“for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980
Val Fitch
“for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931
Carl Bosch
“in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976
William Lipscomb
“for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
John C. Polanyi
“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996
Sir Harold Kroto
“for their discovery of fullerenes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
Aaron Ciechanover
“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Brian Kobilka
“for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910
Albrecht Kossel
“in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
John F. Enders
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Salvador E. Luria
“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
Christian de Duve
“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Torsten N. Wiesel
“for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
César Milstein
“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Louis J. Ignarro
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004
Linda B. Buck
“for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Jack W. Szostak
“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916
Verner von Heidenstam
“in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1924
Wladyslaw Reymont
“for his great national epic, The Peasants

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2012
Mo Yan
“who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1909
Paul Henri d’Estournelles de Constant

The Nobel Peace Prize 1993
F.W. de Klerk
“for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007
Eric S. Maskin
“for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”

Age 58 (20)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927
C.T.R. Wilson
“for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
James Rainwater
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912
Paul Sabatier
“for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943
George de Hevesy
“for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975
John Cornforth
“for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978
Peter Mitchell
“for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991
Richard R. Ernst
“for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Julius Axelrod
“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
Tim Hunt
“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004
Richard Axel
“for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
Thomas C. Südhof
“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1923
William Butler Yeats
“for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1959
Salvatore Quasimodo
“for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2004
Elfriede Jelinek
“for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society’s clichés and their subjugating power”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1936
Carlos Saavedra Lamas

The Nobel Peace Prize 1971
Willy Brandt

The Nobel Peace Prize 1986
Elie Wiesel

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1995
Robert E. Lucas Jr.
“for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001
A. Michael Spence
“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001
Joseph E. Stiglitz
“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”

Age 59 (20)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909
Ferdinand Braun
“in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920
Charles Edouard Guillaume
“in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984
Simon van der Meer
“for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
“for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
Robert C. Richardson
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Daniel C. Tsui
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946
James B. Sumner
“for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956
Sir Cyril Hinshelwood
“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972
Stanford Moore
“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006
Roger D. Kornberg
“for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926
Johannes Fibiger
“for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Sir Bernard Katz
“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1905
Henryk Sienkiewicz
“because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1964
Jean-Paul Sartre
“for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994
Kenzaburo Oe
“who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1902
Albert Gobat

The Nobel Peace Prize 1913
Henri La Fontaine

The Nobel Peace Prize 1990
Mikhail Gorbachev
“for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2007
Al Gore
“for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change”

Age 60 (31)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
“for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918
Max Planck
“in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981
Arthur L. Schawlow
“for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987
K. Alex Müller
“for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Jerome I. Friedman
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
John C. Mather
“for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Shuji Nakamura
“for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925
Richard Zsigmondy
“for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956
Nikolay Semenov
“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963
Giulio Natta
“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977
Ilya Prigogine
“for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001
Barry Sharpless
“for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005
Richard R. Schrock
“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
Bernardo Houssay
“for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
Sir John Eccles
“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
Baruj Benacerraf
“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
John E. Sulston
“for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1917
Karl Gjellerup
“for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1917
Henrik Pontoppidan
“for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948
T.S. Eliot
“for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1951
Pär Lagerkvist
“for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1962
John Steinbeck
“for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1965
Mikhail Sholokhov
“for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000
Gao Xingjian
“for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1925
Charles G. Dawes

The Nobel Peace Prize 1957
Lester Bowles Pearson

The Nobel Peace Prize 1978
Anwar al-Sadat

The Nobel Peace Prize 2014
Kailash Satyarthi
“for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1980
Lawrence R. Klein
“for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1996
James A. Mirrlees
“for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information”

Age 61 (33)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
Eugene Wigner
“for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967
Hans Bethe
“for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981
Nicolaas Bloembergen
“for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Richard E. Taylor
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
George F. Smoot
“for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947
Sir Robert Robinson
“for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972
William H. Stein
“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993
Michael Smith
“for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Martin Chalfie
“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
William E. Moerner
“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936
Sir Henry Dale
“for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
André F. Cournand
“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
Dickinson W. Richards
“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
“for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
George Wald
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Alfred D. Hershey
“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Renato Dulbecco
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
“for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Elizabeth H. Blackburn
“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920
Knut Hamsun
“for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1973
Patrick White
“for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1976
Saul Bellow
“for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1921
Hjalmar Branting

The Nobel Peace Prize 1922
Fridtjof Nansen

The Nobel Peace Prize 1933
Sir Norman Angell

The Nobel Peace Prize 1962
Linus Pauling

The Nobel Peace Prize 1998
John Hume
“for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001
George A. Akerlof
“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2003
Robert F. Engle III
“for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2004
Finn E. Kydland
“for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2012
Alvin E. Roth
“for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013
Lars Peter Hansen
“for their empirical analysis of asset prices”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2014
Jean Tirole
“for his analysis of market power and regulation”

Age 62 (24)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904
Lord Rayleigh
“for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970
Hannes Alfvén
“for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980
Frederick Sanger
“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990
Elias James Corey
“for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
Paul J. Crutzen
“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905
Robert Koch
“for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907
Alphonse Laveran
“in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928
Charles Nicolle
“for his work on typhus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930
Karl Landsteiner
“for his discovery of human blood groups”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961
Georg von Békésy
“for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
George E. Palade
“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Ferid Murad
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
Leland Hartwell
“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1901
Sully Prudhomme
“in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908
Rudolf Eucken
“in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992
Derek Walcott
“for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1993
Toni Morrison
“who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1905
Bertha von Suttner

The Nobel Peace Prize 1925
Sir Austen Chamberlain

The Nobel Peace Prize 1960
Albert Lutuli

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1978
Herbert Simon
“for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1983
Gerard Debreu
“for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1992
Gary Becker
“for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010
Christopher A. Pissarides
“for their analysis of markets with search frictions”

Age 63 (33)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908
Gabriel Lippmann
“for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954
Walther Bothe
“for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Igor Y. Tamm
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981
Kai M. Siegbahn
“for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004
David J. Gross
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910
Otto Wallach
“in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981
Kenichi Fukui
“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984
Bruce Merrifield
“for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996
Robert F. Curl Jr.
“for their discovery of fullerenes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001
Ryoji Noyori
“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005
Robert H. Grubbs
“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906
Camillo Golgi
“in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Ilya Mechnikov
“in recognition of their work on immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913
Charles Richet
“in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936
Otto Loewi
“for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
André Lwoff
“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Max Delbrück
“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999
Günter Blobel
“for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
James E. Rothman
“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1933
Ivan Bunin
“for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1963
Giorgos Seferis
“for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1969
Samuel Beckett
“for his writing, which – in new forms for the novel and drama – in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2003
J. M. Coetzee
“who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017
Kazuo Ishiguro
“who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1919
Woodrow Wilson

The Nobel Peace Prize 1973
Le Duc Tho

The Nobel Peace Prize 2001
Kofi Annan
“for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2005
Mohamed ElBaradei
“for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1975
Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich
“for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1981
James Tobin
“for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1987
Robert M. Solow
“for his contributions to the theory of economic growth”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990
Harry M. Markowitz
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2000
Daniel L. McFadden
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice”

Age 64 (30)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946
Percy W. Bridgman
“for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966
Alfred Kastler
“for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972
John Bardeen
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Henry W. Kendall
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
Theodor W. Hänsch
“for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Makoto Kobayashi
“for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929
Arthur Harden
“for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970
Luis Leloir
“for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974
Paul J. Flory
“for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
Alan Heeger
“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
Hideki Shirakawa
“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
Kurt Wüthrich
“for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924
Willem Einthoven
“for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Sir Alexander Fleming
“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Edward C. Kendall
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952
Selman A. Waksman
“for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Keffer Hartline
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
Jean Dausset
“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986
Stanley Cohen
“for their discoveries of growth factors”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
Sir James W. Black
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1907
Louis Renault

The Nobel Peace Prize 1908
Klas Pontus Arnoldson

The Nobel Peace Prize 1926
Aristide Briand

The Nobel Peace Prize 1930
Nathan Söderblom

The Nobel Peace Prize 2004
Wangari Maathai
“for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1976
Milton Friedman
“for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1979
Sir Arthur Lewis
“for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994
Reinhard Selten
“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2004
Edward C. Prescott
“for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles”

Age 65 (17)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953
Frits Zernike
“for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
David M. Lee
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003
Anthony J. Leggett
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
F. Duncan M. Haldane
“for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944
Otto Hahn
“for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963
Karl Ziegler
“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968
Lars Onsager
“for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
Bernard L. Feringa
“for the design and synthesis of molecular machines”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
Charles B. Huggins
“for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Ulf von Euler
“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
Randy W. Schekman
“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1932
John Galsworthy
“for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga

The Nobel Peace Prize 1978
Menachem Begin

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994
Yasser Arafat
“for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2016
Juan Manuel Santos
“for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1975
Tjalling C. Koopmans
“for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1998
Amartya Sen
“for his contributions to welfare economics”

Age 66 (10)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970
Louis Néel
“for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Leon M. Lederman
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Michael Levitt
“for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935
Hans Spemann
“for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Nikolaas Tinbergen
“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
Sune K. Bergström
“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Sir Martin J. Evans
“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2006
Muhammad Yunus
“for their efforts to create economic and social development from below”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1969
Jan Tinbergen
“for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994
John F. Nash Jr.
“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”

Age 67 (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Jack Steinberger
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989
Hans G. Dehmelt
“for the development of the ion trap technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971
Gerhard Herzberg
“for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
Herbert C. Brown
“for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985
Jerome Karle
“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994
George A. Olah
“for his contribution to carbocation chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
Avram Hershko
“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933
Thomas H. Morgan
“for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Ragnar Granit
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1931
Erik Axel Karlfeldt
“The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1934
Luigi Pirandello
“for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1952
François Mauriac
“for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1971
Pablo Neruda
“for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent’s destiny and dreams”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2015
Svetlana Alexievich
“for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1912
Elihu Root

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1973
Wassily Leontief
“for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1985
Franco Modigliani
“for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1986
James M. Buchanan Jr.
“for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990
Merton H. Miller
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1993
Robert W. Fogel
“for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1999
Robert Mundell
“for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013
Robert J. Shiller
“for their empirical analysis of asset prices”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2016
Bengt Holmström
“for their contributions to contract theory”

Age 68 (28)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992
Georges Charpak
“for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995
Martin L. Perl
“for the discovery of the tau lepton”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999
Martinus J.G. Veltman
“for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007
Peter Grünberg
“for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Toshihide Maskawa
“for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012
Serge Haroche
“for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012
David J. Wineland
“for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983
Henry Taube
“for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985
Herbert A. Hauptman
“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Donald J. Cram
“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
F. Sherwood Rowland
“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909
Theodor Kocher
“for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929
Sir Frederick Hopkins
“for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949
Walter Hess
“for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Roger W. Sperry
“for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005
J. Robin Warren
“for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Ralph M. Steinman
“for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Michael W. Young
“for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927
Henri Bergson
“in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1958
Boris Pasternak
“for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1967
Miguel Angel Asturias
“for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1979
Odysseus Elytis
“for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man’s struggle for freedom and creativeness”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991
Nadine Gordimer
“who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2008
Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio
“author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1972
John R. Hicks
“for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2002
Daniel Kahneman
“for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2011
Thomas J. Sargent
“for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2016
Oliver Hart
“for their contributions to contract theory”

Age 69 (24)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007
Albert Fert
“for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959
Jaroslav Heyrovsky
“for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975
Vladimir Prelog
“for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992
Rudolph A. Marcus
“for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Thomas A. Steitz
“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Robert J. Lefkowitz
“for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Paul Modrich
“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Aziz Sancar
“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994
Martin Rodbell
“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1925
George Bernard Shaw
“for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1946
Hermann Hesse
“for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1961
Ivo Andric
“for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1968
Yasunari Kawabata
“for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1980
Czeslaw Milosz
“who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man’s exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2001
V. S. Naipaul
“for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2014
Patrick Modiano
“for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1902
Élie Ducommun

The Nobel Peace Prize 1920
Léon Bourgeois

The Nobel Peace Prize 1927
Ludwig Quidde

The Nobel Peace Prize 1931
Nicholas Murray Butler

The Nobel Peace Prize 1949
Lord Boyd Orr

The Nobel Peace Prize 1979
Mother Teresa

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2003
Clive W.J. Granger
“for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2011
Christopher A. Sims
“for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy”

Age 70 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Zhores Alferov
“for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905
Adolf von Baeyer
“in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966
Robert S. Mulliken
“for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967
Ronald G.W. Norrish
“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Ada E. Yonath
“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011
Dan Shechtman
“for the discovery of quasicrystals”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Joseph Erlanger
“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Konrad Lorenz
“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
Gertrude B. Elion
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990
E. Donnall Thomas
“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Sir Peter Mansfield
“for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Mario R. Capecchi
“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Jules A. Hoffmann
“for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974
Harry Martinson
“for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1959
Philip Noel-Baker

The Nobel Peace Prize 1974
Seán MacBride

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1971
Simon Kuznets
“for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1977
James E. Meade
“for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010
Peter A. Diamond
“for their analysis of markets with search frictions”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2015
Angus Deaton
“for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare”

Age 71 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971
Dennis Gabor
“for his invention and development of the holographic method”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
Riccardo Giacconi
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
John L. Hall
“for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007
Gerhard Ertl
“for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929
Christiaan Eijkman
“for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990
Joseph E. Murray
“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
Eric Kandel
“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016
Yoshinori Ohsumi
“for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1903
Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
“as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1906
Giosuè Carducci
“not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1944
Johannes V. Jensen
“for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1997
Dario Fo
“who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1908
Fredrik Bajer

The Nobel Peace Prize 1931
Jane Addams

The Nobel Peace Prize 1934
Arthur Henderson

The Nobel Peace Prize 1982
Alfonso García Robles

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994
Shimon Peres
“for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2008
Martti Ahtisaari
“for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1982
George J. Stigler
“for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1984
Richard Stone
“for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010
Dale T. Mortensen
“for their analysis of markets with search frictions”

Age 72 (19)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954
Max Born
“for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
Sir Nevill F. Mott
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983
William A. Fowler
“for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Herbert Kroemer
“for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015
Arthur B. McDonald
“for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953
Hermann Staudinger
“for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969
Odd Hassel
“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
“for the design and synthesis of molecular machines”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017
Richard Henderson
“for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992
Edmond H. Fischer
“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
Harald zur Hausen
“for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Jeffrey C. Hall
“for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904
José Echegaray
“in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1983
William Golding
“for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1985
Claude Simon
“who in his novel combines the poet’s and the painter’s creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1999
Günter Grass
“whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1951
Léon Jouhaux

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994
Yitzhak Rabin
“for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2017
Richard H. Thaler
“for his contributions to behavioural economics”

Age 73 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910
Johannes Diderik van der Waals
“for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar
“for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
J. Michael Kosterlitz
“for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998
John Pople
“for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
Alan MacDiarmid
“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Arieh Warshel
“for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
Niels K. Jerne
“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Michael Rosbash
“for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1960
Saint-John Perse
“for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1989
Camilo José Cela
“for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man’s vulnerability”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1996
Wislawa Szymborska
“for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002
Imre Kertész
“for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Henry Dunant

The Nobel Peace Prize 1911
Tobias Asser

The Nobel Peace Prize 1929
Frank B. Kellogg

The Nobel Peace Prize 1937
Robert Cecil

The Nobel Peace Prize 1953
George C. Marshall

The Nobel Peace Prize 1974
Eisaku Sato

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
“for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1993
Douglass C. North
“for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2006
Edmund S. Phelps
“for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy”

Age 74 (15)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989
Norman F. Ramsey
“for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950
Otto Diels
“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
Sir J. Fraser Stoddart
“for the design and synthesis of molecular machines”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992
Edwin G. Krebs
“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Paul C. Lauterbur
“for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904
Frédéric Mistral
“in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1919
Carl Spitteler
“in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974
Eyvind Johnson
“for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1978
Isaac Bashevis Singer
“for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010
Mario Vargas Llosa
“for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual’s resistance, revolt, and defeat”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1907
Ernesto Teodoro Moneta

The Nobel Peace Prize 1945
Cordell Hull

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1969
Ragnar Frisch
“for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994
John C. Harsanyi
“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013
Eugene F. Fama
“for their empirical analysis of asset prices”

Age 75 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003
Alexei Abrikosov
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998
Walter Kohn
“for his development of the density-functional theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005
Yves Chauvin
“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Ei-ichi Negishi
“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017
Jacques Dubochet
“for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932
Sir Charles Sherrington
“for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949
Egas Moniz
“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
Albert Claude
“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
Paul Greengard
“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
Sydney Brenner
“for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014
John O’Keefe
“for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1956
Juan Ramón Jiménez
“for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966
Nelly Sachs
“for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel’s destiny with touching strength”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005
Harold Pinter
“who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression’s closed rooms”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2016
Bob Dylan
“for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1903
Randal Cremer

The Nobel Peace Prize 1993
Nelson Mandela
“for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2000
Kim Dae-jung
“for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1974
Friedrich von Hayek
“for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2002
Vernon L. Smith
“for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2005
Robert J. Aumann
“for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis”

Age 76 (10)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989
Wolfgang Paul
“for the development of the ion trap technique”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994
Bertram N. Brockhouse
“for the development of neutron spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
Masatoshi Koshiba
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
Charles K. Kao
“for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
Luc Montagnier
“for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981
Elias Canetti
“for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1990
Octavio Paz
“for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1998
José Saramago
“who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1974
Gunnar Myrdal
“for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2009
Elinor Ostrom
“for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons”

Age 77 (15)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995
Frederick Reines
“for the detection of the neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Jack Kilby
“for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Kip S. Thorne
“for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Tomas Lindahl
“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017
Joachim Frank
“for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
George D. Snell
“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986
Rita Levi-Montalcini
“for their discoveries of growth factors”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
Edward B. Lewis
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
Arvid Carlsson
“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921
Anatole France
“in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1988
Naguib Mahfouz
“who, through works rich in nuance – now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous – has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1952
Albert Schweitzer

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1979
Theodore W. Schultz
“for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1988
Maurice Allais
“for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2009
Oliver E. Williamson
“for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm”

Age 78 (8)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
John H. van Vleck
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
Irwin Rose
“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1947
André Gide
“for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950
Bertrand Russell
“in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966
Shmuel Agnon
“for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2002
Jimmy Carter
“for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1977
Bertil Ohlin
“for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1989
Trygve Haavelmo
“for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures”

Age 79 (11)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994
Clifford G. Shull
“for the development of the neutron diffraction technique”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
George E. Smith
“for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
Paul D. Boyer
“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
Jens C. Skou
“for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Richard F. Heck
“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Sir John B. Gurdon
“for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953
Winston Churchill
“for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1975
Eugenio Montale
“for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1977
Vicente Aleixandre
“for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man’s condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Frédéric Passy

The Nobel Peace Prize 1946
Emily Greene Balch

Age 80 (9)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
Ernst Ruska
“for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
Roy J. Glauber
“for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Osamu Shimomura
“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Akira Suzuki
“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015
Satoshi Ōmura
“for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1910
Paul Heyse
“as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2011
Tomas Tranströmer
“because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1909
Auguste Beernaert

The Nobel Peace Prize 1982
Alva Myrdal

Age 81 (6)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013
François Englert
“for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Barry C. Barish
“for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983
Barbara McClintock
“for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1946
John R. Mott

The Nobel Peace Prize 1968
René Cassin

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1991
Ronald H. Coase
“for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy”

Age 82 (6)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
David J. Thouless
“for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
Georg Wittig
“for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Robert F. Furchgott
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Oliver Smithies
“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013
Alice Munro
“master of the contemporary short story”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1996
William Vickrey
“for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information”

Age 83 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Charles J. Pedersen
“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Martin Karplus
“for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
George H. Hitchings
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1984
Jaroslav Seifert
“for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man”

Age 84 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978
Pyotr Kapitsa
“for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013
Peter Higgs
“for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001
William Knowles
“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2005
Thomas C. Schelling
“for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis”

Age 85 (8)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
Willard S. Boyle
“for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Isamu Akasaki
“for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Rainer Weiss
“for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
John B. Fenn
“for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010
Robert G. Edwards
“for the development of in vitro fertilization”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015
William C. Campbell
“for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015
Youyou Tu
“for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1902
Theodor Mommsen
“the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome

Age 86 (1)

The Nobel Peace Prize 1927
Ferdinand Buisson

Age 87 (5)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003
Vitaly L. Ginzburg
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Yoichiro Nambu
“for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
Peyton Rous
“for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Karl von Frisch
“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1995
Joseph Rotblat
“for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms”

Age 88 (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
Raymond Davis Jr.
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2007
Doris Lessing
“that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny”

Age 89 (1)

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2012
Lloyd S. Shapley
“for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design”

Age 90 (1)

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007
Leonid Hurwicz
“for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”