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Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

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Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

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Tawakkol Karman, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King Jr., Mother Teresa, Albert Einstein and Rabindranath Tagore

All Nobel Prizes

Between 1901 and 2014, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 567 times to 889 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 860 individuals and 22 organizations. Below, you can view the full list of Nobel Prizes and Nobel Laureates.

2014

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014

Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura

"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014

Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner

"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014

John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser

"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2014

Patrick Modiano

"for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2014

Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai

"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education"

2013

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

François Englert and Peter W. Higgs

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013

Alice Munro

"master of the contemporary short story"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2013

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

"for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons"

2012

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2012

Mo Yan

"who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2012

European Union (EU)

"for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012

Alvin E. Roth and Lloyd S. Shapley

"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

2011

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011

Dan Shechtman

"for the discovery of quasicrystals"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

Ralph M. Steinman

"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2011

Tomas Tranströmer

"because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman

"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2011

Thomas J. Sargent and Christopher A. Sims

"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"

2010

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010

Robert G. Edwards

"for the development of in vitro fertilization"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010

Mario Vargas Llosa

"for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2010

Liu Xiaobo

"for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"

2009

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Charles Kuen Kao

"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009

Herta Müller

"who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2009

Barack H. Obama

"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009

Elinor Ostrom

"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"

Oliver E. Williamson

"for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"

2008

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Yoichiro Nambu

"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"

Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Harald zur Hausen

"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2008

Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio

"author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2008

Martti Ahtisaari

"for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2008

Paul Krugman

"for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"

2007

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007

Gerhard Ertl

"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2007

Doris Lessing

"that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2007

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr.

"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"

2006

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

John C. Mather and George F. Smoot

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006

Roger D. Kornberg

"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2006

Orhan Pamuk

"who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2006

Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank

"for their efforts to create economic and social development from below"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2006

Edmund S. Phelps

"for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy"

2005

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

Roy J. Glauber

"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"

John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hänsch

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005

Harold Pinter

"who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2005

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradei

"for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005

Robert J. Aumann and Thomas C. Schelling

"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"

2004

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2004

Elfriede Jelinek

"for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2004

Wangari Muta Maathai

"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004

Finn E. Kydland and Edward C. Prescott

"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

2003

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

"for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes"

Peter Agre

"for the discovery of water channels"

Roderick MacKinnon

"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2003

John M. Coetzee

"who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2003

Shirin Ebadi

"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2003

Robert F. Engle III

"for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"

Clive W.J. Granger

"for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"

2002

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Raymond Davis Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

Riccardo Giacconi

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules"

John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Kurt Wüthrich

"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002

Imre Kertész

"for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2002

Jimmy Carter

"for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2002

Daniel Kahneman

"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"

Vernon L. Smith

"for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms"

2001

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001

William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori

"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

K. Barry Sharpless

"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2001

Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul

"for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2001

United Nations (U.N.) and Kofi Annan

"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"

2000

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

"for basic work on information and communication technology"

Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

Jack S. Kilby

"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000

Gao Xingjian

"for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2000

Kim Dae-jung

"for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2000

James J. Heckman

"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples"

Daniel L. McFadden

"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice"

1999

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999

Ahmed H. Zewail

"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

Günter Blobel

"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1999

Günter Grass

"whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1999

Médecins Sans Frontières

"in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1999

Robert A. Mundell

"for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas"

1998

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998

Walter Kohn

"for his development of the density-functional theory"

John A. Pople

"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1998

José Saramago

"who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1998

John Hume and David Trimble

"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"

1997

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

Jens C. Skou

"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997

Stanley B. Prusiner

"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1997

Dario Fo

"who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1997

International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody Williams

"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"

1996

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff and Robert C. Richardson

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1996

Wislawa Szymborska

"for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1996

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta

"for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1996

James A. Mirrlees and William Vickrey

"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"

1995

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

"for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"

Martin L. Perl

"for the discovery of the tau lepton"

Frederick Reines

"for the detection of the neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1995

Seamus Heaney

"for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1995

Joseph Rotblat and Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs

"for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1995

Robert E. Lucas Jr.

"for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy"

1994

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"

Bertram N. Brockhouse

"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"

Clifford G. Shull

"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994

George A. Olah

"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994

Kenzaburo Oe

"who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994

Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin

"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994

John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr. and Reinhard Selten

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

1993

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry"

Kary B. Mullis

"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"

Michael Smith

"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1993

Toni Morrison

"who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1993

Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk

"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1993

Robert W. Fogel and Douglass C. North

"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"

1992

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992

Georges Charpak

"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992

Rudolph A. Marcus

"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992

Derek Walcott

"for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1992

Rigoberta Menchú Tum

"in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1992

Gary S. Becker

"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour"

1991

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991

Richard R. Ernst

"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991

Nadine Gordimer

"who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1991

Aung San Suu Kyi

"for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1991

Ronald H. Coase

"for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"

1990

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990

Elias James Corey

"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1990

Octavio Paz

"for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1990

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev

"for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"

1989

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Norman F. Ramsey

"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"

Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989

Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1989

Camilo José Cela

"for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1989

Trygve Haavelmo

"for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"

1988

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1988

Naguib Mahfouz

"who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1988

Maurice Allais

"for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"

1987

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alexander Müller

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987

Susumu Tonegawa

"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1987

Joseph Brodsky

"for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1987

Oscar Arias Sánchez

"for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"

1986

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Ernst Ruska

"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"

Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1986

Wole Soyinka

"who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1986

James M. Buchanan Jr.

"for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"

1985

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985

Klaus von Klitzing

"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985

Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle

"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1985

Claude Simon

"who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1985

Franco Modigliani

"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"

1984

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984

Robert Bruce Merrifield

"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1984

Jaroslav Seifert

"for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1984

Richard Stone

"for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"

1983

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar

"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"

William Alfred Fowler

"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983

Henry Taube

"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983

Barbara McClintock

"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1983

William Golding

"for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1983

Gerard Debreu

"for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"

1982

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982

Kenneth G. Wilson

"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982

Aaron Klug

"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1982

Gabriel García Márquez

"for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982

George J. Stigler

"for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"

1981

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Leonard Schawlow

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

Kai M. Siegbahn

"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981

Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann

"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Roger W. Sperry

"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"

David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981

Elias Canetti

"for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1981

James Tobin

"for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices"

1980

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980

James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980

Paul Berg

"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"

Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger

"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1980

Czeslaw Milosz

"who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1980

Lawrence R. Klein

"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"

1979

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979

Herbert C. Brown and Georg Wittig

"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1979

Odysseus Elytis

"for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1979

Theodore W. Schultz and Sir Arthur Lewis

"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"

1978

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa

"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978

Peter D. Mitchell

"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1978

Isaac Bashevis Singer

"for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1978

Herbert A. Simon

"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"

1977

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John Hasbrouck van Vleck

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977

Ilya Prigogine

"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

Rosalyn Yalow

"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1977

Vicente Aleixandre

"for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1977

Bertil Ohlin and James E. Meade

"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"

1976

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976

Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976

William N. Lipscomb

"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1976

Saul Bellow

"for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1976

Milton Friedman

"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"

1975

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson and Leo James Rainwater

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975

John Warcup Cornforth

"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"

Vladimir Prelog

"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1975

Eugenio Montale

"for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions"

1974

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974

Paul J. Flory

"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974

Eyvind Johnson

"for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom"

Harry Martinson

"for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1974

Gunnar Myrdal and Friedrich August von Hayek

"for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena"

1973

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

Brian David Josephson

"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973

Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson

"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1973

Patrick White

"for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1973

Wassily Leontief

"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"

1972

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

Christian B. Anfinsen

"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"

Stanford Moore and William H. Stein

"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1972

Heinrich Böll

"for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1972

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1972

John R. Hicks and Kenneth J. Arrow

"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"

1971

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971

Dennis Gabor

"for his invention and development of the holographic method"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971

Gerhard Herzberg

"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1971

Pablo Neruda

"for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1971

Simon Kuznets

"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"

1970

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén

"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"

Louis Eugène Félix Néel

"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970

Luis F. Leloir

"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1970

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn

"for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1970

Paul A. Samuelson

"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"

1969

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969

Murray Gell-Mann

"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969

Derek H. R. Barton and Odd Hassel

"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1969

Samuel Beckett

"for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969

Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen

"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"

1968

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968

Luis Walter Alvarez

"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968

Lars Onsager

"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1968

Yasunari Kawabata

"for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind"

1967

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967

Hans Albrecht Bethe

"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1967

Miguel Angel Asturias

"for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1967

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1966

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966

Alfred Kastler

"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966

Robert S. Mulliken

"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Peyton Rous

"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"

Charles Brenton Huggins

"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966

Shmuel Yosef Agnon

"for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"

Nelly Sachs

"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1966

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1965

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965

Robert Burns Woodward

"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1965

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov

"for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people"

1964

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1964

Jean-Paul Sartre

"for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age"

1963

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Eugene Paul Wigner

"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"

Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963

Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta

"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1963

Giorgos Seferis

"for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"

1962

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962

Lev Davidovich Landau

"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962

Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew

"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1962

John Steinbeck

"for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"

1961

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Robert Hofstadter

"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"

Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer

"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961

Melvin Calvin

"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

Georg von Békésy

"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1961

Ivo Andric

"for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"

1960

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960

Donald Arthur Glaser

"for the invention of the bubble chamber"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960

Willard Frank Libby

"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1960

Saint-John Perse

"for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time"

1959

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959

Jaroslav Heyrovsky

"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1959

Salvatore Quasimodo

"for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times"

1958

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958

Frederick Sanger

"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

Joshua Lederberg

"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1958

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak

"for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"

1957

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957

Lord (Alexander R.) Todd

"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957

Daniel Bovet

"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1957

Albert Camus

"for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times"

1956

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956

Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov

"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1956

Juan Ramón Jiménez

"for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1956

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1955

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

Willis Eugene Lamb

"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"

Polykarp Kusch

"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955

Vincent du Vigneaud

"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell

"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1955

Halldór Kiljan Laxness

"for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1955

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1954

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Max Born

"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"

Walther Bothe

"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954

Linus Carl Pauling

"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1954

Ernest Miller Hemingway

"for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"

1953

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953

Frits (Frederik) Zernike

"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953

Hermann Staudinger

"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Hans Adolf Krebs

"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

Fritz Albert Lipmann

"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill

"for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"

1952

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Selman Abraham Waksman

"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1952

François Mauriac

"for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"

1951

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951

Edwin Mattison McMillan and Glenn Theodore Seaborg

"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951

Max Theiler

"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1951

Pär Fabian Lagerkvist

"for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind"

1950

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950

Cecil Frank Powell

"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950

Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder

"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950

Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) Russell

"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought"

1949

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949

Hideki Yukawa

"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949

William Francis Giauque

"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Walter Rudolf Hess

"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949

William Faulkner

"for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"

1948

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948

Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett

"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948

Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius

"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

Paul Hermann Müller

"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948

Thomas Stearns Eliot

"for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1948

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1947

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947

Sir Edward Victor Appleton

"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947

Sir Robert Robinson

"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

Bernardo Alberto Houssay

"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1947

André Paul Guillaume Gide

"for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"

1946

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946

Percy Williams Bridgman

"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946

James Batcheller Sumner

"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"

John Howard Northrop and Wendell Meredith Stanley

"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946

Hermann Joseph Muller

"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1946

Hermann Hesse

"for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"

1945

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945

Wolfgang Pauli

"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945

Artturi Ilmari Virtanen

"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1945

Gabriela Mistral

"for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"

1944

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi

"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944

Otto Hahn

"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1944

Johannes Vilhelm Jensen

"for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style"

1943

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943

Otto Stern

"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943

George de Hevesy

"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943

Henrik Carl Peter Dam

"for his discovery of vitamin K"

Edward Adelbert Doisy

"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1943

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1943

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1942

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1941

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1940

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1939

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939

Ernest Orlando Lawrence

"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt

"for his work on sex hormones"

Leopold Ruzicka

"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939

Gerhard Domagk

"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1939

Frans Eemil Sillanpää

"for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1939

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1938

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938

Enrico Fermi

"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938

Richard Kuhn

"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938

Corneille Jean François Heymans

"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1938

Pearl Buck

"for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"

1937

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

Clinton Joseph Davisson and George Paget Thomson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937

Walter Norman Haworth

"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"

Paul Karrer

"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt

"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1937

Roger Martin du Gard

"for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault"

1936

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

Victor Franz Hess

"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"

Carl David Anderson

"for his discovery of the positron"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936

Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye

"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1936

Eugene Gladstone O'Neill

"for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy"

1935

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935

James Chadwick

"for the discovery of the neutron"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935

Frédéric Joliot and Irène Joliot-Curie

"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935

Hans Spemann

"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1935

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1934

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1934

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934

Harold Clayton Urey

"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1934

Luigi Pirandello

"for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art"

1933

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1933

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933

Thomas Hunt Morgan

"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1933

Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin

"for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"

1932

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932

Werner Karl Heisenberg

"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932

Irving Langmuir

"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1932

John Galsworthy

"for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1932

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1931

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1931

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931

Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931

Otto Heinrich Warburg

"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1931

Erik Axel Karlfeldt

"The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt"

1930

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930

Hans Fischer

"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

Karl Landsteiner

"for his discovery of human blood groups"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1930

Sinclair Lewis

"for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters"

1929

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929

Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie

"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929

Arthur Harden and Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin

"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Christiaan Eijkman

"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins

"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1929

Thomas Mann

"principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"

1928

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928

Owen Willans Richardson

"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928

Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus

"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1928

Sigrid Undset

"principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1928

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1927

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927

Arthur Holly Compton

"for his discovery of the effect named after him"

Charles Thomson Rees Wilson

"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927

Heinrich Otto Wieland

"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927

Julius Wagner-Jauregg

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927

Henri Bergson

"in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"

1926

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin

"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926

The (Theodor) Svedberg

"for his work on disperse systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger

"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1926

Grazia Deledda

"for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"

1925

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925

Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1925

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1925

George Bernard Shaw

"for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty"

1924

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924

Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn

"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1924

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924

Willem Einthoven

"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1924

Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont

"for his great national epic, The Peasants"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1924

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1923

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923

Robert Andrews Millikan

"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923

Fritz Pregl

"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1923

William Butler Yeats

"for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1923

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1922

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922

Niels Henrik David Bohr

"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922

Francis William Aston

"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Archibald Vivian Hill

"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"

Otto Fritz Meyerhof

"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922

Jacinto Benavente

"for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama"

1921

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921

Albert Einstein

"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921

Frederick Soddy

"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1921

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921

Anatole France

"in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament"

1920

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920

Charles Edouard Guillaume

"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920

Walther Hermann Nernst

"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920

Schack August Steenberg Krogh

"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920

Knut Pedersen Hamsun

"for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil"

1919

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919

Johannes Stark

"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1919

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919

Jules Bordet

"for his discoveries relating to immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1919

Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler

"in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring"

1918

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck

"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918

Fritz Haber

"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1917

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917

Charles Glover Barkla

"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1917

Karl Adolph Gjellerup

"for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals"

Henrik Pontoppidan

"for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark"

1916

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916

Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam

"in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1915

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915

Richard Martin Willstätter

"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1915

Romain Rolland

"as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1914

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914

Max von Laue

"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914

Theodore William Richards

"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914

Robert Bárány

"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1914

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1914

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1913

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913

Alfred Werner

"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913

Charles Robert Richet

"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913

Rabindranath Tagore

"because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West"

1912

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912

Nils Gustaf Dalén

"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912

Victor Grignard

"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"

Paul Sabatier

"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912

Alexis Carrel

"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1912

Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann

"primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art"

1911

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911

Wilhelm Wien

"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911

Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911

Allvar Gullstrand

"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911

Count Maurice (Mooris) Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck

"in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations"

1910

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals

"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910

Otto Wallach

"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910

Albrecht Kossel

"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1910

Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse

"as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"

1909

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909

Wilhelm Ostwald

"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909

Emil Theodor Kocher

"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909

Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf

"in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"

1908

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908

Gabriel Lippmann

"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908

Ernest Rutherford

"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908

Rudolf Christoph Eucken

"in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"

1907

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907

Albert Abraham Michelson

"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907

Eduard Buchner

"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1907

Rudyard Kipling

"in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author"

1906

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906

Joseph John Thomson

"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906

Henri Moissan

"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1906

Giosuè Carducci

"not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces"

1905

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905

Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer

"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905

Robert Koch

"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1905

Henryk Sienkiewicz

"because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"

1904

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904

Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)

"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904

Sir William Ramsay

"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904

Frédéric Mistral

"in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"

José Echegaray y Eizaguirre

"in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"

1903

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Antoine Henri Becquerel

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"

Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903

Svante August Arrhenius

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

Niels Ryberg Finsen

"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1903

Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson

"as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"

1902

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902

Hermann Emil Fischer

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902

Ronald Ross

"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1902

Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen

"the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome"

1901

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901

Emil Adolf von Behring

"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1901

Sully Prudhomme

"in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect"

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