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Between 1901 and 2014, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 567 times to 889 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 860 individuals and 22 organizations. Below, you can view the full list of Nobel Prizes and Nobel Laureates.
"for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"
"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"
"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites"
"for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria"
"for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time"
"for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011"
The 2015 Prize in Economic Sciences has not been awarded yet. It will be announced on Monday 12 October, 1:00 p.m. CET at the earliest.
"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"
"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"
"for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"
"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education"
"for his analysis of market power and regulation"
"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"
"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"
"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"
"for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons"
"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"
"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"
"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"
"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"
"who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary"
"for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe"
"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"
"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"
"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"
"because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"
"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"
"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"
"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"
"for the development of in vitro fertilization"
"for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat"
"for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"
"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"
"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
"who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"
"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples"
"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"
"for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"
"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"
"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"
"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"
"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"
"author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"
"for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"
"for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"
"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"
"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
"that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"
"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"
"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"
"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"
"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"
"who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures"
"for their efforts to create economic and social development from below"
"for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy"
"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"
"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"
"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"
"who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"
"for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"
"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"
"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
"for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"
"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"
"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"
"for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes"
"for the discovery of water channels"
"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
"who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"
"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children"
"for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"
"for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"
"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules"
"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"
"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"
"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"
"for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"
"for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"
"for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms"
"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"
"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"
"for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories"
"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"
"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"
"for basic work on information and communication technology"
"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"
"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"
"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"
"for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama"
"for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"
"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples"
"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice"
"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"
"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"
"whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"
"in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"
"for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas"
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"
"for his development of the density-functional theory"
"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"
"who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality"
"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"
"for his contributions to welfare economics"
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"
"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"
"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"
"who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden"
"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"
"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
"for their discovery of fullerenes"
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"
"for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"
"for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor"
"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"
"for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
"for the discovery of the tau lepton"
"for the detection of the neutrino"
"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"
"for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"
"for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"
"for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy"
"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"
"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"
"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
"who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today"
"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"
"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"
"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"
"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry"
"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"
"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"
"for their discoveries of split genes"
"who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"
"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"
"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"
"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"
"for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"
"in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"
"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour"
"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"
"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"
"who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"
"for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"
"for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"
"for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"
"for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"
"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"
"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"
"for the development of the ion trap technique"
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"
"for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"
"for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"
"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
"who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind"
"for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"
"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"
"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"
"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"
"for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"
"for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"
"for his contributions to the theory of economic growth"
"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"
"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"
"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"
"for their discoveries of growth factors"
"who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence"
"for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"
"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
"who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition"
"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"
"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"
"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"
"for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man"
"for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"
"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"
"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"
"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"
"for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today"
"for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"
"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"
"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"
"for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"
"for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"
"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"
"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"
"for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"
"for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices"
"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"
"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"
"who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"
"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"
"for the development of computer assisted tomography"
"for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"
"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"
"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"
"for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"
"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"
"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"
"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"
"for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars"
"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"
"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"
"for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"
"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"
"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"
"for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions"
"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"
"for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom"
"for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos"
"for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena"
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"
"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"
"for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature"
"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"
"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"
"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"
"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"
"for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund.
"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"
"for his invention and development of the holographic method"
"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"
"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"
"for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams"
"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"
"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"
"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"
"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"
"for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"
"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"
"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"
"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"
"for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation"
"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"
"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"
"for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind"
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"
"for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"
"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"
"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"
"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"
"for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"
"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"
"for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people"
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"
"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"
"for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age"
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"
"for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"
"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"
"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"
"for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"
"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"
"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"
"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"
"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"
"for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"
"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"
"for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time"
"for their discovery of the antiproton"
"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"
"for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times"
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"
"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"
"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"
"for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"
"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"
"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"
"for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times"
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"
"for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"
"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"
"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"
"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"
"for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"
"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"
"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"
"for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"
"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"
"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"
"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"
"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"
"for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"
"for their invention of partition chromatography"
"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"
"for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"
"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"
"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"
"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"
"for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind"
"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"
"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"
"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought"
"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"
"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"
"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"
"for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"
"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"
"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"
"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"
"for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"
"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"
"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"
"for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"
"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"
"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"
"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"
"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"
"for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"
"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"
"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"
"for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"
"for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style"
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"
"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"
"for his discovery of vitamin K"
"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"
"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"
"for his work on sex hormones"
"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"
"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"
"for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature"
"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"
"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"
"for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"
"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"
"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"
"for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault"
"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"
"for his discovery of the positron"
"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"
"for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy"
"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"
"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"
"for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art"
"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"
"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"
"for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"
"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"
"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"
"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"
"for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga"
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"
"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"
"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"
"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"
"for his discovery of human blood groups"
"for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters"
"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"
"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"
"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"
"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"
"principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"
"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"
"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"
"principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"
"for his discovery of the effect named after him"
"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"
"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"
"in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"
"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"
"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"
"for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"
"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"
"for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty"
"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"
"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"
"for his great national epic, The Peasants"
"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"
"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"
"for the discovery of insulin"
"for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"
"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"
"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"
"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"
"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"
"for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama"
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"
"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"
"in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament"
"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"
"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"
"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"
"for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil"
"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"
"for his discoveries relating to immunity"
"in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring"
"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"
"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"
"for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals"
"for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark"
"in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"
"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"
"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"
"as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings"
"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"
"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"
"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"
"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"
"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"
"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"
"because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West"
"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"
"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"
"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"
"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"
"primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art"
"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"
"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"
"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"
"in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations"
"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"
"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"
"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"
"as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"
"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"
"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"
"in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"
"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"
"in recognition of their work on immunity"
"in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"
"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"
"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"
"in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author"
"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"
"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"
"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"
"not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces"
"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"
"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"
"because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"
"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"
"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"
"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"
"in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"
"in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"
"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"
"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"
"as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"
"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"
"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"
"the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome"
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"
"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"
"in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect"