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Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

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Nobel Laureates and Research Affiliations

This list shows the universities, research institutions or companies Nobel Laureates were affiliated with at the time of the Nobel Prize announcement. Only Nobel Laureates in Physics, Chemistry and Physiology or Medicine, and Laureates in Economic Sciences are shown in the list.

A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Zhores I. Alferov

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

Jens C. Skou

"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010

Dale T. Mortensen

"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"

Academy of Sciences, Moscow, USSR

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962

Lev Landau

"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Pyotr Kapitsa

"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1975

Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich

"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"

All Souls College, Oxford, United Kingdom

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1972

John R. Hicks

"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"

Amsterdam University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Pieter Zeeman

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals

"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Alexei A. Abrikosov

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2004

Edward C. Prescott

"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2009

Elinor Ostrom

"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"

Associated Universities Inc., Washington, DC, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Riccardo Giacconi

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"

Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berkshire, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

John Cockcroft

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Sir John Eccles

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

Australian National University, Weston Creek, Australia

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Brian P. Schmidt

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

Basel Institute for Immunology, Basel, Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Niels K. Jerne

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Georges J.F. Köhler

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

Basel University, Basel, Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Tadeus Reichstein

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, NJ, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Arno Penzias

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Robert Woodrow Wilson

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

George E. Smith

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Willard S. Boyle

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

Clinton Davisson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

Walter H. Brattain

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

Philip W. Anderson

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

Berlin University, Berlin, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918

Max Planck

"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

Erwin Schrödinger

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901

Jacobus H. van 't Hoff

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902

Emil Fischer

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920

Walther Nernst

"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936

Peter Debye

"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"

Berne University, Berne, Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909

Theodor Kocher

"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

Biozentrum der Universität, Basel, Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Werner Arber

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

Birmingham University, Birmingham, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937

Norman Haworth

"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"

Boston University Medical School, Massachusetts, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Osamu Shimomura

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

Joseph E. Murray

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

Bristol University, Bristol, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950

Cecil Powell

"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"

Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

Leon N. Cooper

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

Brussels University, Brussels, Belgium

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919

Jules Bordet

"for his discoveries relating to immunity"

Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (International Bureau of Weights and Measures), Sèvres, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920

Charles Edouard Guillaume

"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"

Calcutta University, Calcutta, India

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930

Sir Venkata Raman

"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"

California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923

Robert A. Millikan

"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

Carl D. Anderson

"for his discovery of the positron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Rudolf Mössbauer

"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Richard P. Feynman

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969

Murray Gell-Mann

"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

William A. Fowler

"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

H. David Politzer

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954

Linus Pauling

"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992

Rudolph A. Marcus

"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999

Ahmed Zewail

"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

Robert H. Grubbs

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933

Thomas H. Morgan

"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

George Beadle

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Max Delbrück

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Roger W. Sperry

"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Sir Martin J. Evans

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943

Otto Stern

"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"

Carnegie Institution of Washington, Long Island, New York, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Alfred D. Hershey

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1978

Herbert A. Simon

"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2004

Finn E. Kydland

"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

Center for Study of Public Choice, Fairfax, VA, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1986

James M. Buchanan Jr.

"for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"

Central Research Laboratories, EMI, London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

Godfrey N. Hounsfield

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

CERN, Geneva, Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

Carlo Rubbia

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

Simon van der Meer

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Jack Steinberger

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992

Georges Charpak

"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Charles K. Kao

"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

City University of New York, New York, NY, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990

Harry M. Markowitz

"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983

Barbara McClintock

"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"

Collège de France, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

Serge Haroche

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Jean-Marie Lehn

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

Cologne University, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950

Kurt Alder

"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi

"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949

Hideki Yukawa

"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

Polykarp Kusch

"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

Tsung-Dao Lee

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

James Rainwater

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Horst L. Störmer

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934

Harold C. Urey

"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Martin Chalfie

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

Dickinson W. Richards

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Eric R. Kandel

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Richard Axel

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1996

William Vickrey

"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1999

Robert A. Mundell

"for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001

Joseph E. Stiglitz

"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2006

Edmund S. Phelps

"for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy"

Columbia University Division, Cardio-Pulmonary Laboratory, Bellevue Hospital, New York, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

André F. Cournand

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922

Niels Bohr

"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920

August Krogh

"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926

Johannes Fibiger

"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967

Hans Bethe

"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982

Kenneth G. Wilson

"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

David M. Lee

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

Robert C. Richardson

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946

James B. Sumner

"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955

Vincent du Vigneaud

"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981

Roald Hoffmann

"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Robert W. Holley

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947

Edward V. Appleton

"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"

Digital Pathways, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Melvin Schwartz

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

Du Pont, Wilmington, DE, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Charles J. Pedersen

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

Robert J. Lefkowitz

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

École municipale de physique et de chimie industrielles (Municipal School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry), Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Pierre Curie

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

École Nationale Supérieur des Mines de Paris, Paris, France

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1988

Maurice Allais

"for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"

École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966

Alfred Kastler

"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

Serge Haroche

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

École Polytechnique, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Henri Becquerel

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"

École Supérieure de Physique et Chimie, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992

Georges Charpak

"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917

Charles Glover Barkla

"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Max Born

"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"

Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939

Leopold Ruzicka

"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975

Vladimir Prelog

"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991

Richard R. Ernst

"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

Kurt Wüthrich

"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Yoichiro Nambu

"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"

Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Minneapolis, MN, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2004

Edward C. Prescott

"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Leon M. Lederman

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

Finsen Medical Light Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

Niels Ryberg Finsen

"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"

Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

Peter Grünberg

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

Frankfurt-on-the-Main University, Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914

Max von Laue

"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

E. Donnall Thomas

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Leland H. Hartwell

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Linda B. Buck

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Ernst Ruska

"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"

Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007

Gerhard Ertl

"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"

General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Ivar Giaever

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932

Irving Langmuir

"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"

George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2002

Vernon L. Smith

"for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms"

German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Harald zur Hausen

"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"

Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938

Corneille Heymans

"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"

Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Shinya Yamanaka

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

Glynn Research Laboratories, Bodmin, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978

Peter Mitchell

"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"

Goettingen University, Goettingen, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

James Franck

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910

Otto Wallach

"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925

Richard Zsigmondy

"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928

Adolf Windaus

"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

Paul Ehrlich

"in recognition of their work on immunity"

Graz University, Graz, Austria

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923

Fritz Pregl

"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

Otto Loewi

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919

Johannes Stark

"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"

Groningen University, Groningen, the Netherlands

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953

Frits Zernike

"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"

Gurdon Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Sir John B. Gurdon

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Arvid Carlsson

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

Halle University, Halle, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

Gustav Hertz

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

Harvard Business School, Boston, MA, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2012

Alvin E. Roth

"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Fritz Lipmann

"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

John F. Enders

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Baruj Benacerraf

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

David H. Hubel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Torsten N. Wiesel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Jack W. Szostak

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946

Percy W. Bridgman

"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

E. M. Purcell

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Julian Schwinger

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

John H. van Vleck

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Steven Weinberg

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Norman F. Ramsey

"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

Roy J. Glauber

"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914

Theodore W. Richards

"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965

Robert B. Woodward

"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976

William Lipscomb

"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

Dudley R. Herschbach

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990

Elias James Corey

"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

Martin Karplus

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

George R. Minot

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

William P. Murphy

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

Georg von Békésy

"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

James Watson

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Konrad Bloch

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

George Wald

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1971

Simon Kuznets

"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1972

Kenneth J. Arrow

"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1973

Wassily Leontief

"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1997

Robert C. Merton

"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2012

Alvin E. Roth

"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

Harvard University, Biological Laboratories, Cambridge, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980

Walter Gilbert

"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

Harvard University, Lyman Laboratory, Cambridge, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Sheldon Glashow

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Makoto Kobayashi

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

Akira Suzuki

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, ,

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Roger Y. Tsien

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Thomas A. Steitz

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

Robert J. Lefkowitz

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Jack W. Szostak

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

Randy W. Schekman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

Thomas C. Südhof

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G., Heidelberg, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931

Carl Bosch

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G., Mannheim-Rheinau, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931

Friedrich Bergius

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Leo Esaki

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Rüschlikon, Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Gerd Binnig

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Heinrich Rohrer

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

J. Georg Bednorz

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

K. Alex Müller

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Sir Paul Nurse

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Tim Hunt

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratory, London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

Renato Dulbecco

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971

Dennis Gabor

"for his invention and development of the holographic method"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Abdus Salam

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969

Derek Barton

"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973

Geoffrey Wilkinson

"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946

Hermann J. Muller

"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2009

Elinor Ostrom

"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"

Innsbruck University, Innsbruck, Austria

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

Victor F. Hess

"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"

Institut du Radium, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935

Frédéric Joliot

"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935

Irène Joliot-Curie

"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

Institut Français du Pétrole, Rueil-Malmaison, France

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

Yves Chauvin

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907

Alphonse Laveran

"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

Ilya Mechnikov

"in recognition of their work on immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

François Jacob

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

André Lwoff

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

Jacques Monod

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

Chen Ning Yang

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007

Eric S. Maskin

"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"

Institute for Biochemical Research, Buenos Aires, Argentina

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970

Luis Leloir

"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"

Institute for Chemical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956

Nikolay Semenov

"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

Institute for Infectious Diseases, Berlin, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905

Robert Koch

"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"

Institute of Cell Biology of the C.N.R., Rome, Italy

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

Ronald G.W. Norrish

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Institute of Technology, Milan, Italy

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963

Giulio Natta

"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Institute for Biology and Experimental Medicine), Buenos Aires, Argentina

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Bernardo Houssay

"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Abdus Salam

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Chief Institute of Public Health), Rome, Italy

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957

Daniel Bovet

"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"

Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

George D. Snell

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Adam G. Riess

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

Peter Agre

"for the discovery of water channels"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Daniel Nathans

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Hamilton O. Smith

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Carol W. Greider

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Fritz-Haber-Institut) für physikalische Chemie und Electrochemie, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918

Fritz Haber

"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck Institut) für Chemie, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944

Otto Hahn

"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck Institut) für Medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938

Richard Kuhn

"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Biochemie, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Biologie, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931

Otto Warburg

"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Physik, Berlin, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921

Albert Einstein

"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936

Peter Debye

"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"

Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Ragnar Granit

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Ulf von Euler

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Sune K. Bergström

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Bengt I. Samuelsson

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

Karolinska Institutet, Nobel Medical Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955

Hugo Theorell

"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"

Kiel University, Kiel, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905

Philipp Lenard

"for his work on cathode rays"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Otto Meyerhof

"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"

Kiel University, Kiel, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950

Otto Diels

"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

Konrad-Lorenz-Institut der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissen­schaften, Forschungsstelle für Ethologie, Altenberg; Grünau im Almtal, Austria

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Konrad Lorenz

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

Kyoto Imperial University, Kyoto, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949

Hideki Yukawa

"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Toshihide Maskawa

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981

Kenichi Fukui

"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Shinya Yamanaka

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

Königliches Institut für experimentelle Therapie (Royal Institute for Experimental Therapy), Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

Paul Ehrlich

"in recognition of their work on immunity"

Laboratories of the Division of Medicine and Public Health, Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951

Max Theiler

"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

Laboratorium der Farben-Fabriken J.R. Geigy A.G. (Laboratory of the J.R. Geigy Dye-Factory Co.), Basel, Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

Paul Müller

"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule (Agricultural College), Berlin, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907

Eduard Buchner

"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Saul Perlmutter

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Hendrik A. Lorentz

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924

Willem Einthoven

"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"

Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932

Werner Heisenberg

"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909

Wilhelm Ostwald

"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"

Liverpool University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935

James Chadwick

"for the discovery of the neutron"

London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010

Christopher A. Pissarides

"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"

London University, London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928

Owen Willans Richardson

"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

George Paget Thomson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929

Arthur Harden

"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Archibald V. Hill

"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Alexander Fleming

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Maurice Wilkins

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

London University, King's College Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Sir James W. Black

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

Long Term Capital Management, Greenwich, CT, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1997

Myron S. Scholes

"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"

Ludwig-Maximilians- Universität, Munich, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

Theodor W. Hänsch

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

Madrid University, Madrid, Spain

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Santiago Ramón y Cajal

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

Mainz University, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

Werner Forssmann

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

Marburg University, Marburg, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901

Emil von Behring

"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. Ltd., London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Guglielmo Marconi

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Woods Hole, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Osamu Shimomura

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Fritz Lipmann

"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Jack W. Szostak

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Charles H. Townes

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976

Samuel C.C. Ting

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Jerome I. Friedman

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Henry W. Kendall

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

Clifford G. Shull

"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Wolfgang Ketterle

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

Frank Wilczek

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

Mario J. Molina

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

Richard R. Schrock

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Salvador E. Luria

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

David Baltimore

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987

Susumu Tonegawa

"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

H. Robert Horvitz

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1970

Paul A. Samuelson

"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1985

Franco Modigliani

"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1987

Robert M. Solow

"for his contributions to the theory of economic growth"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010

Peter A. Diamond

"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Center for Cancer Research, Cambridge, MA, USA

Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie, Martinsried, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

Robert Huber

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysik, Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

Hartmut Michel

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Erwin Neher

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

Paul J. Crutzen

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie, Tübingen, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985

Klaus von Klitzing

"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"

Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung (Max-Planck-Institute for Carbon Research), Mülheim/Ruhr, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963

Karl Ziegler

"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

Max-Planck-Institut für medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Walther Bothe

"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Bert Sakmann

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

Max-Planck-Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Goettingen, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

Manfred Eigen

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

Theodor W. Hänsch

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

Max-Planck-Institut für Zellchemie, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Feodor Lynen

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Edward C. Kendall

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Philip S. Hench

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

Bertram N. Brockhouse

"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"

Military Medical Academy, St. Petersburg, Russia

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904

Ivan Pavlov

"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962

Max F. Perutz

"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962

John C. Kendrew

"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980

Frederick Sanger

"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982

Aaron Klug

"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

John E. Walker

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Francis Crick

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

César Milstein

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

Munich University, Munich, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905

Adolf von Baeyer

"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915

Richard Willstätter

"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927

Heinrich Wieland

"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"

Munster University, Munster, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939

Gerhard Domagk

"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001

Ryoji Noyori

"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

Nancy University, Nancy, France

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912

Victor Grignard

"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

John C. Mather

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

National Institute for Medical Research, London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952

Archer J.P. Martin

"for their invention of partition chromatography"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

Sir Henry Dale

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Martin Rodbell

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

William D. Phillips

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

John L. Hall

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

David J. Wineland

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

Christian Anfinsen

"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Marshall W. Nirenberg

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Julius Axelrod

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

D. Carleton Gajdusek

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971

Gerhard Herzberg

"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"

Neurological Institute, Lisbon, Portugal

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Egas Moniz

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA, USA

New York University, New York, NY, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2003

Robert F. Engle III

"for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2011

Thomas J. Sargent

"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"

New York University, College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Severo Ochoa

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

NHMRC Helicobacter pylori Research Laboratory, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands, Australia

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

Barry J. Marshall

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

Aage N. Bohr

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

Nordita, Copenhagen, Denmark

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

Ben R. Mottelson

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998

John Pople

"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010

Dale T. Mortensen

"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"

P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, USSR

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Pavel A. Cherenkov

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Igor Y. Tamm

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Il´ja M. Frank

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Nicolay G. Basov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Aleksandr M. Prokhorov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

Pavia University, Pavia, Italy

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Camillo Golgi

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

Peter Brent Brigham Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

William P. Murphy

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

Polarographic Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science, Prague, Czechoslovakia

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959

Jaroslav Heyrovsky

"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"

Polytechnic Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark

Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945

Wolfgang Pauli

"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Eugene Wigner

"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980

Val Fitch

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

Russell A. Hulse

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Daniel C. Tsui

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Eric F. Wieschaus

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1979

Sir Arthur Lewis

"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994

John F. Nash Jr.

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2002

Daniel Kahneman

"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2008

Paul Krugman

"for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2011

Christopher A. Sims

"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979

Herbert C. Brown

"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

Ei-ichi Negishi

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

Regulation of Retroviral Infections Unit, Virology Department, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

Research Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

Thomas H. Weller

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

John F. Enders

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994

Reinhard Selten

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

Rice University, Houston, TX, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996

Robert F. Curl Jr.

"for their discovery of fullerenes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996

Richard E. Smalley

"for their discovery of fullerenes"

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Princeton, NJ, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946

John H. Northrop

"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946

Wendell M. Stanley

"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912

Alexis Carrel

"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

Karl Landsteiner

"for his discovery of human blood groups"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

Herbert S. Gasser

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

Edward Tatum

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

Stanford Moore

"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

William H. Stein

"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984

Bruce Merrifield

"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

Roderick MacKinnon

"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Peyton Rous

"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Haldan K. Hartline

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Gerald M. Edelman

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Christian de Duve

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

Günter Blobel

"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Paul Greengard

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Ralph M. Steinman

"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"

Rome University, Rome, Italy

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938

Enrico Fermi

"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"

Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn (Scotland), United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952

Richard L.M. Synge

"for their invention of partition chromatography"

Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Hannes Alfvén

"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"

Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904

Lord Rayleigh

"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

George Porter

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Selman A. Waksman

"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"

Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943

Edward A. Doisy

"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"

Semiconductor Laboratory of Beckman Instruments, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

William B. Shockley

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

Sheffield University, Sheffield, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Hans Krebs

"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

Koichi Tanaka

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Sorbonne University, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908

Gabriel Lippmann

"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin

"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906

Henri Moissan

"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911

Marie Curie

"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913

Charles Richet

"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"

Sorbonne University, Institut Henri Poincaré, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929

Louis de Broglie

"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Adam G. Riess

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Peter C. Doherty

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

Staatliches Institut für makromolekulare Chemie (State Research Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry), Freiburg, Breisgau, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953

Hermann Staudinger

"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"

Standard Telecommunication Laboratories, Harlow, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Charles K. Kao

"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976

Burton Richter

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

Felix Bloch

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

Willis E. Lamb

"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Robert Hofstadter

"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Arthur L. Schawlow

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Richard E. Taylor

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

Martin L. Perl

"for the discovery of the tau lepton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

Douglas D. Osheroff

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Steven Chu

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Robert B. Laughlin

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974

Paul J. Flory

"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980

Paul Berg

"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983

Henry Taube

"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006

Roger D. Kornberg

"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Arthur Kornberg

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

Thomas C. Südhof

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990

William F. Sharpe

"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001

A. Michael Spence

"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

Brian K. Kobilka

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

Michael Levitt

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Andrew Z. Fire

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1977

Bertil Ohlin

"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"

Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903

Svante Arrhenius

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929

Hans von Euler-Chelpin

"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943

George de Hevesy

"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"

Strasbourg University, Strasbourg, Alsace (then Germany, now France)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Ferdinand Braun

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

SUNY Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Robert F. Furchgott

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

Swedish Gas-Accumulator Co., Lidingö-Stockholm, Sweden

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912

Gustaf Dalén

"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

Szeged University, Szeged, Hungary

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937

Albert Szent-Györgyi

"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

Technical University, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Rudolf Mössbauer

"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973

Ernst Otto Fischer

"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

Aaron Ciechanover

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

Avram Hershko

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011

Dan Shechtman

"for the discovery of quasicrystals"

Technische Hochschule (Institute of Technology), Munich, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930

Hans Fischer

"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"

Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Jack S. Kilby

"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"

The Institute for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

Baruch S. Blumberg

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

The Medical Foundation of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985

Herbert A. Hauptman

"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

The Molecular Sciences Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

Sydney Brenner

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Netherlands School of Economics, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1969

Jan Tinbergen

"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"

The Salk Institute, San Diego, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Roger Guillemin

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001

K. Barry Sharpless

"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

Kurt Wüthrich

"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Bruce A. Beutler

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

The Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

John R. Vane

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

John E. Sulston

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

Tokyo University of Education, Tokyo, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

Toulouse University, Toulouse, France

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912

Paul Sabatier

"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"

Trinity College, Cambridge, United Kingdom

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1998

Amartya Sen

"for his contributions to welfare economics"

Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

Ernest T.S. Walton

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

Allan M. Cormack

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/THALES, Orsay, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

Albert Fert

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

Albert Fert

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain, Belgium

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Albert Claude

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Christian de Duve

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

Université de Paris, Laboratoire Immuno-Hématologie, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Jean Dausset

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

Martin Karplus

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

François Englert

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977

Ilya Prigogine

"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"

Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Jean-Marie Lehn

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

University College, Liverpool, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902

Ronald Ross

"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

University College, London, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

William Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904

Sir William Ramsay

"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

Peter Medawar

"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Andrew F. Huxley

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Sir Bernard Katz

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

University of Bonn, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Wolfgang Paul

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

Michael Smith

"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"

University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939

Ernest Lawrence

"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

Emilio Segrè

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

Owen Chamberlain

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960

Donald A. Glaser

"for the invention of the bubble chamber"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968

Luis Alvarez

"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

George F. Smoot

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Saul Perlmutter

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949

William F. Giauque

"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951

Edwin M. McMillan

"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951

Glenn T. Seaborg

"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961

Melvin Calvin

"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

Yuan T. Lee

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

Randy W. Schekman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1983

Gerard Debreu

"for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994

John C. Harsanyi

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2000

Daniel L. McFadden

"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001

George A. Akerlof

"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2009

Oliver E. Williamson

"for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"

University of California, La Jolla, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Maria Goeppert Mayer

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

University of California, Irvine, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

Frederick Reines

"for the detection of the neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

F. Sherwood Rowland

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

Irwin Rose

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960

Willard F. Libby

"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Donald J. Cram

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

Paul D. Boyer

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2012

Lloyd S. Shapley

"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Herbert Kroemer

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998

Walter Kohn

"for his development of the density-functional theory"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

Alan Heeger

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2004

Finn E. Kydland

"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

University of California, San Diego, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Roger Y. Tsien

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2003

Clive W.J. Granger

"for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"

University of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Louis J. Ignarro

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

J. Michael Bishop

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

Harold E. Varmus

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997

Stanley B. Prusiner

"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"

University of California, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

David J. Gross

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906

J.J. Thomson

"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927

C.T.R. Wilson

"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

Paul A.M. Dirac

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Brian D. Josephson

"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

Martin Ryle

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

Antony Hewish

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

Sir Nevill F. Mott

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922

Francis W. Aston

"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957

Lord Todd

"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958

Frederick Sanger

"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Sir Frederick Hopkins

"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

Edgar Adrian

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Alan L. Hodgkin

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010

Robert G. Edwards

"for the development of in vitro fertilization"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1977

James E. Meade

"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1984

Richard Stone

"for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1996

James A. Mirrlees

"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907

Albert A. Michelson

"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927

Arthur H. Compton

"for his discovery of the effect named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980

James Cronin

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar

"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966

Robert S. Mulliken

"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1976

Milton Friedman

"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1979

Theodore W. Schultz

"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1982

George J. Stigler

"for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990

Merton H. Miller

"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1991

Ronald H. Coase

"for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1992

Gary S. Becker

"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1993

Robert W. Fogel

"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1995

Robert E. Lucas Jr.

"for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2000

James J. Heckman

"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007

Roger B. Myerson

"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013

Eugene F. Fama

"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013

Lars Peter Hansen

"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"

University of Chicago, Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research, Chicago, IL, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Charles B. Huggins

"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"

University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

David J. Wineland

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989

Thomas R. Cech

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

University of Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Eric A. Cornell

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Carl E. Wieman

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

John L. Hall

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

University of Delaware, , USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

Richard F. Heck

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

Peter Higgs

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

University of Freiburg, Breisgau, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953

Hermann Staudinger

"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"

University of Freiburg im Breisgau, Breisgau, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935

Hans Spemann

"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"

University of Grenoble, Grenoble, France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Louis Néel

"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"

University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931

Carl Bosch

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931

Friedrich Bergius

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938

Richard Kuhn

"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910

Albrecht Kossel

"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"

University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Walther Bothe

"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

J. Hans D. Jensen

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979

Georg Wittig

"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945

Artturi Virtanen

"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"

University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

John Bardeen

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

John Bardeen

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Anthony J. Leggett

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

Paul C. Lauterbur

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

University of Jerusalem, Center for RationalityHebrew, Jerusalem, Israel

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2005

Robert J. Aumann

"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"

University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Egas Moniz

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

Andre Geim

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

Konstantin Novoselov

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

University of Maryland, Department of Economics and School of Public Policy, College Park, MD, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2005

Thomas C. Schelling

"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Craig C. Mello

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007

Leonid Hurwicz

"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"

University of Moscow, Moscow, USSR

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Igor Y. Tamm

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Il´ja M. Frank

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Oliver Smithies

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

Sir Peter Mansfield

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969

Odd Hassel

"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1969

Ragnar Frisch

"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1989

Trygve Haavelmo

"for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"

University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921

Frederick Soddy

"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947

Sir Robert Robinson

"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956

Sir Cyril Hinshelwood

"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

Sir Charles Sherrington

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Ernst B. Chain

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Howard Florey

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Rodney R. Porter

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Nikolaas Tinbergen

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

University of Oxford, Royal Society, Oxford, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

Robert Schrieffer

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Raymond Davis Jr.

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

Alan G. MacDiarmid

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1980

Lawrence R. Klein

"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"

University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

George H. Whipple

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994

George A. Olah

"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

Arieh Warshel

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Jules A. Hoffmann

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975

John Cornforth

"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996

Sir Harold Kroto

"for their discovery of fullerenes"

University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977

Ilya Prigogine

"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"

University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Ferid Murad

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

Johann Deisenhofer

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Michael S. Brown

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Joseph L. Goldstein

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Alfred G. Gilman

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Bruce A. Beutler

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Masatoshi Koshiba

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

John C. Polanyi

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

University of Tsukuba, Tokyo, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

Hideki Shirakawa

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Mario R. Capecchi

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Hans G. Dehmelt

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edmond H. Fischer

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edwin G. Krebs

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

Barry J. Marshall

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

Joshua Lederberg

"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

H. Gobind Khorana

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

Howard M. Temin

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913

Alfred Werner

"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937

Paul Karrer

"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Walter Hess

"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"

University of Zurich, Institute of Experimental Immunology, Zurich, Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Rolf M. Zinkernagel

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924

Manne Siegbahn

"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Kai M. Siegbahn

"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926

The Svedberg

"for his work on disperse systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948

Arne Tiselius

"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911

Allvar Gullstrand

"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"

US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985

Jerome Karle

"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

Gerardus 't Hooft

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Christiaan Eijkman

"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

Stanley Cohen

"for their discoveries of growth factors"

Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, LA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Andrew V. Schally

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

Veterans Administration Hospital, Bronx, NY, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Rosalyn Yalow

"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"

Victoria University, Manchester, United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

Lawrence Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948

Patrick M.S. Blackett

"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908

Ernest Rutherford

"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"

Vienna University, Vienna, Austria

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914

Robert Bárány

"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927

Julius Wagner-Jauregg

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

John B. Fenn

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet

"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

Joseph Erlanger

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Carl Cori

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Gerty Cori

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1993

Douglass C. North

"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"

Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Ada E. Yonath

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

Wellcome Research Laboratories, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Gertrude B. Elion

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

George H. Hitchings

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

Frederick C. Robbins

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention, Paris, France

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Luc Montagnier

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

Würzburg University, Würzburg, Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911

Wilhelm Wien

"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"

Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968

Lars Onsager

"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989

Sidney Altman

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Thomas A. Steitz

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

James E. Rothman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1975

Tjalling C. Koopmans

"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1981

James Tobin

"for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013

Robert J. Shiller

"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"

Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

George E. Palade

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Toshihide Maskawa

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

Zoologisches Institut der Universität München, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Karl von Frisch

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

 

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